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Memory cache a memory cache is a remarkable high speed storage mechanism used in the central processing unit. It reduces the average time to access memory. It is a piece of memory made by high speed static RAM. Most programmes access the same data and instructions over and over again. Keeping much information as possible in the static RAM (SRAM) makes the computer possible for retrieving data fast (Smith 2003). Since the CPU only performs the read access, the two can be combined to reduce the hardware overhead and increase its speed.

Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) is an inbuilt CPU design that simplifies instructions and enable more speed when performing tasks in a computer. When a CPU uses a simplified, highly optimized set of instructions, it makes the computer to increase its speed. There is a number of systems that various computer architects described as the first reduced instruction set architecture. However, there is no consensus on the exact system that can be called the first RISC system (Singh 2006).

Pipelining and parallel processing is the ability to do multiple of tasks simultaneously. This is the use of more CPU in running various programs and tasks simultaneously. Parallel processing in computers makes the programme run faster because there is more engine power. With computers with just one processor, parallel processing can be done by networking. However, this requires   software called distributed processing software ( Roosta 1999)

Memory management it is an act of managing computer memory. It refers to how memory can be stored in a computer, tracking them and ability to reclaim them.

Virtual storage is memory management skill used  to develop multitasking ability. This skill studies the computer architectures forms of data storage allowing a programme to be designed as if there is only one memory ( Soman  2008).

 Paging is the process by which a computer stores data for secondary use. Paging helps in virtual memory implementation n many operating systems which allow them to use disk storage for data which cannot fit in the ram.

Memory protection is a way of controlling memory access rights in a computer. It is a part of modernized operating system whose main purpose is to prevent a process from accessing memory that the server did not assign to handle. It protects bugs that try to invade other processes and the operating system. Memory protection includes additional techniques like address page layout randomization (McIver 2010).

Tracks are thin concentric circular strips of sectors, where head can read a single track. Track takes the name CH combination, consisting of SPT sectors.

Sectors are the smallest unit recognized by the hard drive. All information stored in the hard drive is usually stored in the sectors. It can also be defined as a bit of a track on a magnetic disk or optical disk, which can always, stores a certain amount of data.

Clusters are allocated units of data on various file system which mainly consist of files. They are not affected by physical or virtual geometry of the disk. Cluster can begin a task in a CH track and end in a sector strangely or logically next to a CH.

Cylinders are a three dimensioned structure which contains all track numbers on each sector. It spans all trucks in platters surface that stores data. Any part comprising of any cylinder can be written to and from while actuator assembly remains stationally. Drivers manufactural who manufacture the hard drive have increased the speed and thus increasing the number of platters to be read at the same time (Dhamdhere 2006).

The Difference between the Batch Processing and Transaction Processing

Batch processing is the removal of programmes and files in a computer without involving the manual intervention. A programme takes a set of data as files as input, processes the data and produces other data files. A typical batch processing schedule includes the end of the day report. Many businesses have opted go online and use batch architectures to realize globalization, internet and other business ideas. Batch processing is used for bulk database and automated transactions processing as compared to online transaction opening.

Transaction processing. Is an information system which collects, store, modify and retrieves data of an organization. Transaction is an act of modifying data to be stored in an information system unit. Its recommended that a transaction processing should pass an acid test. The advantage of using the transaction process is that it manages data that must be left in a consistent rate, for example, if an electric bill is made exact amount of money should be moved from one account to the other. Both must occur or neither. In case of failure preventing the completion of the task, the earlier task must be rolled back by the TPS (Ec-Council 2009).

Seek time measure the amount of time it takes the head assembly of the actuator arm to travel to the track of the disk where data is saved. Data in media is stored in sectors which has got, parallel circular, tracks arrangement. When the drive needs to read or write something it searches the location of the sector.

Head switching is the turning taken by hard drive, which moves the, current action being performed from read-write head to another. It is the method of changing heads in a hard disk drive written using an offline method (Shajahan 2007).

Rotational delay is also known as rotational latent. This is the delay waiting the rotation of the disk to bring the required disk sector to the read-write head. Its speed is determined in revolutions per minute (RPM) and depends on the rotational speed of the disk.

Secondary storage is storage where one can store data separate from the computer itself. This can be done on semi permanent basis. Data can be stored in the following secondary basis, which are permanent.

Hard disk drive –hard disks are metal platter coated with magnetic oxide which can be magnetized to represent data. Personal computers hard disks have soared where it is easy to spot disks with hundred of megabytes buts it is unusual to locate disks with gigabytes. Softwares take much space in the hard disk .graphics and video files require more file capacities. In storing in hard disks drives, data can be stored in forms of folders. Organizing ones work in different folders according to the topic makes it be easier when searching for the data.

Diskettes –diskettes can record data as magnetized spots on tracks of its surface. Diskettes are portable hence they can move data from one computer to another. It’s convenient to hold a copy of hard disk in a diskette. This is used for backup of the programmes and files. Softwares is stored in diskettes. New software comes in the form of diskettes (Steinmetz 1997).

Removable storage or zip disks. Computer users who never seem to have enough storage space may opt to turn to a removable hard disk. Removable hard disks may be replaced with new ones when they are full. Removable hard disks are portable just like the diskettes. Removable disks can be used in business that requires security. They can be used during business hours and removed during off hours. One disadvantage of the diskettes is that one takes long to access to data than an inbuilt one (Bangia 2008)

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